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  • Lasers: Understanding the Basics

    This unique axis with very high optical gain becomes also the direction of propagation of the laser beam. A somewhat different example of a uniquely long (and flexible!) gain axis is the fiber laser. Figure 2. In the prototypical gas laser, the gain medium has a long, thin cylindrical shape. The cavity is defined by two mirrors.

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  • Birefringence

    2018-5-31u2002·u2002Optical orientation factor is generally defined as the average angle of inclination of the chain molecules in the crystalline regions with respect of fiber axis. Mathematically, f= 0.5[3cos 2 θ-1] Where θ = angle between the elongation direction and main optical axis. Here, f = 1.0 for maximum parallel orientation (θ=0)

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  • Lens Aberrations: Avoiding Defects in Imagery

    For on-axis light bundles, the optical axis of the lens coincides with the central ray in that bundle. For off-axis bundles, the corresponding central ray is called the chief ray, or principal ray. The height of the chief ray at the image plane defines image size. If lateral color exists in the lens system, this chief ray is dispersed, causing ...

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  • Colorimeter - an overview

    Colorimeter. As with colorimeters, a built-in or add-on computer can be used to process readings to give tristimulus values under a range of illuminants, colour differences from standards, and variance of colour between repeat specimens or over parts of a surface.

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  • Fiber Optic Terms and Definitions - Lightel

    An optical device that separates a series of optical channels so alternating wavelengths emerge out its two ports, sometimes called an interleaver. Macrobending In a fiber, all macroscopic deviations of the fiber's axis from a straight line, that will cause light to leak out of the fiber, causing signal attenuation.

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  • Alkali Feldspar - an overview

    Sanidine (K, Na) (AlSi 3 O 8) is the monoclinic high-temperature alkaline K-Na feldspar, which usually contains about 30%, but sometimes up to 62% sodium (Ab) component. It is found only in young volcanic discharges or volcanic rocks (rhyolite, trachyte, and dacite).

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  • Linear Graph

    2021-11-29u2002·u2002Linear means straight and a graph is a diagram which shows a connection or relation between two or more quantity. So, the linear graph is nothing but a straight line or straight graph which is drawn on a plane connecting the points on x and y coordinates. We use linear relations in our everyday life, and by graphing those relations in a plane, we get a straight line.

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  • (PDF) Commercial Ion Implantation Systems

    2021-11-29u2002·u2002This tutorial chapter describes over 20 commercial ion implantation tool design s for processing of IC. devices on wafers, electronic features of Si - on - …

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  • Epidote - science.smith.edu

    2017-2-8u2002·u2002Oblique to cleavage in pseudo-hexagonal sections, otherwise straight on cleavage in prismatic section: Dispersion: Optic axis dispersion is usually strong with v > r (clinozoisite) or r > v (epidote.) Distinguishing Features: Epidote is characterized by its green color and one perfect cleavage. H= 6-7. G = 3.25 to 4.45. Streak is white to gray.

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  • Mineral Classification - Sternberg Museum of Natureal History

    2021-12-1u2002·u2002Mineral Classification - Sternberg Museum of Natureal History. Hours and Admission. (877) 332-1165. Donate. Mineral Classification. Geologists first classified minerals according to their primary chemical composition, such as iron or copper. In the mid-19th century, American geologist, mineralogist, and zoologist James Dwight Dana created a ...

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  • Optical Properties of Minerals » Geology Science

    Optical Microscopy . Study of how light passes through thin sections – rock cut and polished to about 0.3 mm thickness; Use properties of light absorption and propogation through a mineral à affected by atomic arrangement and composition; Learn the properties of light associated with techniques governing the use of a petrographic microscope

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  • Lasers: Understanding the Basics

    This unique axis with very high optical gain becomes also the direction of propagation of the laser beam. A somewhat different example of a uniquely long (and flexible!) gain axis is the fiber laser. Figure 2. In the prototypical gas laser, the gain medium has a long, thin cylindrical shape. The cavity is defined by two mirrors.

    Get Price
  • Fiber Optic Terms and Definitions - Lightel

    An optical device that separates a series of optical channels so alternating wavelengths emerge out its two ports, sometimes called an interleaver. Macrobending In a fiber, all macroscopic deviations of the fiber's axis from a straight line, that will cause …

    Get Price
  • Birefringence

    2018-5-31u2002·u2002Optical orientation factor is generally defined as the average angle of inclination of the chain molecules in the crystalline regions with respect of fiber axis. Mathematically, f= 0.5[3cos 2 θ-1] Where θ = angle between the elongation direction and main optical axis. Here, f = 1.0 for maximum parallel orientation (θ=0)

    Get Price
  • Alkali Feldspar - an overview

    Sanidine (K, Na) (AlSi 3 O 8) is the monoclinic high-temperature alkaline K-Na feldspar, which usually contains about 30%, but sometimes up to 62% sodium (Ab) component. It is found only in young volcanic discharges or volcanic rocks (rhyolite, trachyte, and dacite).

    Get Price
  • Geological Folds

    2021-11-17u2002·u2002A fold geology is a wave-like structure created when rocks bend instead of a break during deformation. On the surface geographically, a fold may be depicted by a mountain or a valley, depending on ...

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  • 5 Best Laser Engravers - Dec. 2021 - BestReviews

    Laser engraver prices. Inexpensive: You can buy a small laser engraver from around $120 to $200. Few have a carving area of more than about 1 1/2 inch square, and power will be in the 1,000 to 1,500 milliwatts range, so the materials you can engrave, and depth of engraving, will be limited.

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  • Tourmaline: Earth's most colorful mineral and gemstone

    Tourmaline Sources. Brazil has been the world's leading source of tourmaline for nearly 500 years. In the 1500s Portuguese explorers obtained green and blue tourmaline from indigenous people and from panning streams in search of gold.They thought that these colorful stones were emeralds and sapphires and sent them back to Portugal, where they were cut into gems and used to make …

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